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What is nephrotic syndrome and what causes it?

Nephrotic syndrome is disease of the kidneys where the filtering system made of functional units called the nephrons, gets damaged. This is the name given to the collection of findings which develop as a result of such a damage. When the filtering system gets damaged, the kidney tends to filter substances which it usually doesn’t,

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Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children

The incidence of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) is 1·15-16·9 per 100 000 children, varying by ethnicity and region. The cause remains unknown but the pathogenesis of idiopathic NS is thought to involve immune dysregulation, systemic circulating factors, or inherited structural abnormalities of the podocyte. Genetic risk is more commonly described among children with steroid-resistant disease. The

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Management of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children and adolescents

More than 85% of children and adolescents (majority between 1-12 years old) with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome show complete remission of proteinuria following daily treatment with corticosteroids. Patients who do not show remission after 4 weeks’ treatment with daily prednisolone are considered to have steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Renal histology in most patients shows presence of

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Nephrotic Syndrome: Oedema Formation and Its Treatment With Diuretics

Oedema is a defining element of the nephrotic syndrome. Its’ management varies considerably between clinicians, with no national or international clinical guidelines, and hence variable outcomes. Oedema may have serious sequelae such as immobility, skin breakdown and local or systemic infection. Treatment of nephrotic oedema is often of limited efficacy, with frequent side-effects and interactions

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Genetics of Nephrotic Syndrome Presenting in Childhood

Advances in genome science in the last 20 years have led to the discovery of over 50 single gene causes and genetic risk loci for steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Despite these advances, the genetic architecture of childhood steroid sensitivenephrotic syndrome (SSNS) remains poorly understood due in large part to the varying clinical course of

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Kidney disease in children – Nephrotic Syndrome

What is nephrotic syndrome? Nephrotic syndrome as the name suggests is a disease of the kidney which affects the filtering system of the kidney known as the nephrons, which are the small functioning structures within the kidney. These nephrons are damaged due to various causes which results in a set of symptoms, with which the

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Rituximab Use in the Management of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome

Childhood nephrotic syndrome is a challenging and often persistent renal disorder, and its incidence varies between different ethnicities and regions. Corticosteroids have been the main treatment for decades and are effective in most children with idiopathic NS, although 10-15% of these children become steroid resistant. Furthermore, some initially steroid sensitive children follow a steroid dependent

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How does Prednisolone Work in Nephrotic Syndrome?

Nephrotic syndrome (NS), a common chronic kidney disease, embraces a variety of kidney disorders. Though Glucocorticoids (GCs) are generally used in the treatment of NS, their mechanism of action is poorly understood. A plethora of evidence indicates that podocytes are considered as the main target cells for the therapeutic strategies to prevent NS. GCs regulate

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Hypertension in Nephrotic Syndrome

Arterial hypertension (HTN) is commonly encountered by clinicians treating children with steroid sensitive (SSNS) and steroid resistantnephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Although the prevalence of HTN in SSNS is less documented than in SRNS, recent studies reported high prevalence in both. Studies have estimated the prevalence of HTN in different patient populations with NS to range from

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Levamisole in Nephrotic Syndrome

Steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome is one of the most common pediatric glomerular diseases. Unfortunately, it follows a relapsing and remitting course in the majority of cases, with 50% of all cases relapsing once or even more often. Most children with idiopathicnephrotic syndrome respond initially to steroid therapy, nevertheless repeated courses for patients with relapses induce

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