Genetics of Nephrotic Syndrome Presenting in Childhood

Advances in genome science in the last 20 years have led to the discovery of over 50 single gene causes and genetic risk loci for steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Despite these advances, the genetic architecture of childhood steroid sensitivenephrotic syndrome (SSNS) remains poorly understood due in large part to the varying clinical course of

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Kidney disease in children – Nephrotic Syndrome

What is nephrotic syndrome? Nephrotic syndrome as the name suggests is a disease of the kidney which affects the filtering system of the kidney known as the nephrons, which are the small functioning structures within the kidney. These nephrons are damaged due to various causes which results in a set of symptoms, with which the

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Rituximab Use in the Management of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome

Childhood nephrotic syndrome is a challenging and often persistent renal disorder, and its incidence varies between different ethnicities and regions. Corticosteroids have been the main treatment for decades and are effective in most children with idiopathic NS, although 10-15% of these children become steroid resistant. Furthermore, some initially steroid sensitive children follow a steroid dependent

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How does Prednisolone Work in Nephrotic Syndrome?

Nephrotic syndrome (NS), a common chronic kidney disease, embraces a variety of kidney disorders. Though Glucocorticoids (GCs) are generally used in the treatment of NS, their mechanism of action is poorly understood. A plethora of evidence indicates that podocytes are considered as the main target cells for the therapeutic strategies to prevent NS. GCs regulate

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Hypertension in Nephrotic Syndrome

Arterial hypertension (HTN) is commonly encountered by clinicians treating children with steroid sensitive (SSNS) and steroid resistantnephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Although the prevalence of HTN in SSNS is less documented than in SRNS, recent studies reported high prevalence in both. Studies have estimated the prevalence of HTN in different patient populations with NS to range from

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Levamisole in Nephrotic Syndrome

Steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome is one of the most common pediatric glomerular diseases. Unfortunately, it follows a relapsing and remitting course in the majority of cases, with 50% of all cases relapsing once or even more often. Most children with idiopathicnephrotic syndrome respond initially to steroid therapy, nevertheless repeated courses for patients with relapses induce

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The impact of fluid balance on outcomes in premature neonates: a report from the AWAKEN study group.

This study evaluated the epidemiology of fluid balance (FB) over the first postnatal week and its impact on outcomes in a multi-center cohort of premature neonates from the AWAKEN study. Positive peak Fluid balance [FB] during the first postnatal week and more positive FB on postnatal day 7 were independently associated with mechanical ventilation [MV]

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What is Nephrotic syndrome?

Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia. Minimal change disease, the most common cause in childhood, generally responds to corticosteroids, although most patients experience disease relapses. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is usually resistant to corticosteroids and carries a significant risk of kidney failure, necessitating renal transplantation. Nephrotic syndrome may also be secondary to

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Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome in India in the Current Era: A Multicenter Case Series

There is a paucity of information on epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment outcomes of congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) in developing countries. This largest reported series on CNS from India revealed suboptimal management with poor outcome as well as low number of CNS being subjected to genetic evaluation. Sources:

A Glimpse On Chronic Kidney Disease

CKD (chronic kidney disease) is a lifelong condition in which the kidney function slowly declines over many years. It is common in adults but extremely rare in children. It can be caused by a number of conditions affecting the kidney and can present at birth or later on during childhood. All kidney conditions do not

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